Enough with the Valentine heart!

Cardiac anatomy is bizarre, the heart is the only organ, which for no obvious reason has been described as though it were outside of the body, standing on its apex in the shape of a Valentine heart. Despite extensive publications by the likes of McAlpine, Anderson and Hill on the attitudinal correct orientation of the […]

Can you tell a Bell’s palsy from a stroke?

In this post, I will be discussing the neuroanatomical differentiation between an upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) facial palsy. The two pathologies in the title could also be differentiated in other ways, for example, the speed of onset, additional symptoms and signs, etc.; however understanding the neuroanatomy in the context of […]

Your basal ganglia looks out of date sir!

I know some of you are going to scroll down and think I’m not reading all that! For those of you, I have a small summary paragraph at the end. If you’re moreĀ a “bring it on kinda person”, then read the whole thing. I realise the basal ganglia can be a confusing topic, hence this […]